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Read some of the major articles on maternal and newborn health organized by topic.

 denotes AMDD publications.

EmOC programming and field experience

Evidence-based strategies for prevention of maternal mortality. Maine D, Paxton A. In: Johanson R, Daya S, eds. Evidence-based Obstetrics. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Maternal mortality in low-income countries: what interventions have been evaluated and how should the evidence base be developed further? Burchett HE, Mayhew SH. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics.  2009;105(1):78-81.

Where there is no anesthetist - increasing capacity for emergency obstetric care in rural India: An evaluation of a pilot program to train general doctors. Mavalankar D, Callahan K, Sriram V, Singh P, Desai, A. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2009;107(3):283-288.

Where there is no obstetrician - increasing capacity for emergency obstetric care in rural India: an evaluation of a pilot program to train general doctors. Evans CL, Maine D, McCloskey L, Feeley FG, Sanghvi H. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2009;107(3):277-282.

Confidential inquiries into maternal deaths: modifications and adaptations in Ghana and Indonesia. Hussein J, D'Ambruoso L, Armar-Klemesu M, et al. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2009;106(1):80-84.

Saving mothers and newborns through an innovative partnership with private sector obstetricians: Chiranjeevi scheme of Gujarat, India. Mavalankar D, Singh A, Patel SR, Desai A, Singh PV. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2009;107(3):271-276.

Reducing maternal mortality among Afghan refugees in Pakistan. Purdin S, Khan T, Saucier R. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2009;105(1):82-85.

Women's preferences for place of delivery in rural Tanzania: a population-based discrete choice experiment. Kruk ME, Paczkowski M, Mbaruku G, de Pinho H, Galea S. American Journal of Public Health. 2009;99(9):1666-72.

Mbaruku G, van Roosmalen J, Kimondo I, Bilango F, Bergström S. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2009;106(1):85-88.

Maternal death review in Africa. Pearson L, deBernis L, Shoo R. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2009;106(1):89-94.

Reducing maternal mortality in Yemen: challenges and lessons learned from baseline assessment. Al Serouri, AW, Al Rabee A, Bin Afif M, Al Rukeimi A. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2009;105(1):86-91.

Using audits to reduce the incidence of uterine rupture in a Malawian district hospital. van den Akker T, Mwagomba B, Irlam J, van Roosmalen J. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2009;107(3):289-294.

Promoting accountability in obstetric care: use of criteria-based audit in Viet Nam. Bailey PE, Binh HT, Bang HT. Global Public Health. 2009;5(1):62–74.

Perinatal audit using the 3-delays model in western Tanzania. Practical lessons from global safe motherhood initiatives: time for a new focus on implementation. Freedman, LP, Graham WJ, Brazier E, Smith JM, et al. The Lancet. 2007;370(1):1383-1391.

Strengthening emergency obstetric care in Ayacucho, Peru. Kayongo M, Esquiche E, Luna MR, Frias G, Vega-Centeno L, Bailey PE. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2006;92:299-307.

The effect of addressing demand for as well as supply of emergency obstetric care in Dinajpur, Bangladesh.Hossain J and Ross SR. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2006;92:320-328.

Improving availability of EmOC services in Rwanda—CARE’s experiences and lessons learned at Kabgayi Referral Hospital. Kayongo M, Butera J, Mboninyibuka D, Nyiransabimana B, Ntezimana A, and Mukangamuje V.International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2006;92:291-298.

A Tool for assessing 'readiness' in emergency obstetric care: the room-by-room 'walk through'. Gill Z, Bailey PE, Waxman R, Smith JB. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2005;89:191-199.

Making EmOC a reality—CARE’s experiences in areas of high maternal mortality in Africa. Kayongo M, Rubardt M, Butera J, Abdullah M, Mboninyibuka D and Madili M. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics.2006;92:308-319.The evidence base for emergency obstetric care. Paxton A, Maine D, Freedman L, Fry D, Lobis S. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2005;88(2):181-193.

EmOC indicators

The availability of life-saving obstetric services in developing countries: an in-depth look at the signal functions for emergency obstetric care. Bailey PE, Paxton A, Lobis S, Fry D. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2006;93:285-291.

Can the process indicators for emergency obstetric care assess the progress of maternal mortality reduction programs? An examination of UNFPA projects 2000-2004. Fauveau V and Donnay F. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2006;93:308-316.

Global patterns in availability of emergency obstetric care. Paxton A, Bailey PE, Lobis S, Fry D. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2006;93:300-307.

Capacity building

The Network Value Chain. Bloom E, Reeves M, and Leonard A. Capacity Development Briefs. World Bank Institute. February 2009

Capacity Change and Performance: Capacity development: between planned interventions and emergent processes: Implications for development cooperation. Land T, Hauck V, and Baser H.  European Centre for Development Policy Management. March 2009

Networks and capacity and for life: An analysis of capacity and change in a Brazilian network. Taschereau. S, and Bolger J. European Centre for Development Policy Management . 2007.

Recommendations for renovating an operating theater at an emergency obstetric care facility. Abreu E, Potter D. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2001;75(3): 287-94.

Health systems

Removing financial barriers to access reproductive, maternal and newborn health services: the challenges and policy implications for human resources for health. McPake B., Witter S., Ensor T., Fustukian S., Newlands D., Martineau T. and Chirwa Y. Human Resources for Health. 2013; 11:46 (22 September 2013).

"Drivers and deterrents of facility delivery in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review." Moyer, C. and A. Mustafa (2013). Reproductive Health 10(1): 40.

"The importance of public sector health facility-level data for monitoring changes in maternal mortality risks among communities: The case of Pakistan." Jain, A. K., et al. (2013). Journal of Biosocial Science 45(05): 601-613.

Rebuilding health systems to improve health and promote statebuilding in post-conflict countries: a theoretical framework and research agenda. Kruk ML, Freedman G, Anglin R, Waldman. Social Science Medicine. (Accepted for publication in 2010).


Are doctors and nurses associated with coverage of essential health services in developing countries? A cross-sectional study. Kruk M, Prescott M, de Pinho H, Galea S. Human Resources for Health. 2009;7:27.

Human rights

Health system strengthening: New potential for public health and human rights collaboration. Freedman LP. Reproductive Health Matters. 2007;15(30):219–220.

Achieving the MDGs: Health systems as core social institutions. Freedman LP. Development. 2005;48(1):19–24.

Human rights, constructive accountability and maternal mortality in the Dominican Republic: A commentary. Freedman LP. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2003;82:111–114.

Strategic advocacy and maternal mortality: Moving targets and the Millennium Development Goals. Freedman LP. Gender and Development. 2003;11(1):97-108.

Shifting visions: “delegation” policies and the building of a “rights-based” approach to maternal mortality. Freedman LP. Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association. 2002;57(3):154-158.

Using human rights in maternal mortality programs: from analysis to strategy. Freedman LP. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2001;75:51-60.

Human rights and women’s health. In: Goldman MB, Hatch MC, eds. Freedman LP. Women and Health: Section 5 International Women’s Health. Academic Press; 2000.

Human resources

Addressing invisibility, inferiority, and powerlessness to achieve gains in maternal health for ultra-poor women. Mumtaz Z, Salway S, Bhatti A, McIntyre L. Lancet. 2013; doi:pii: S0140-6736(13)61646-3. 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61646-3.

"Addressing the human resources crisis: a case study of Cambodia’s efforts to reduce maternal mortality (1980–2012)." Fujita, N., K. Abe, et al. (2013). BMJ Open 3:e002685.

Human resources for health in the low-resource world: Collaborative practice and task shifting in maternal and neonatal care. FIGO. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2009;105(1):74-76.

Mid-level providers in emergency obstetric and newborn health care: factors affecting their performance and retention within the Malawian health system. Bradley S, McAuliffe E. Human Resources for Health. 2009;7(1):14.

Measuring and managing the work environment of the mid-level provider - the neglected human resource. McAuliffe E, et al. Human Resources for Health. 2009;7(1):13.

The quality of emergency obstetrical surgery by assistant medical officers in Tanzanian district hospitals. McCord C, et al. Health Affairs. 2009;28(5):w876-885.

Mid-level health workers - The state of the evidence on programmes, activities, costs and impact on health outcomes - A literature review. Lehmann U. Geneva: WHO, Department of Human Resources for Health; 2008.

Task shifting in health care in resource-poor countries. McPake B, Mensah K. The Lancet. 2008;372(9642):870-871.

Joint Health Professions Statement on Task Shifting. Midwives ICo, et al. 2008.

Addis Ababa Declaration. WHO, PEPFAR, UNAIDS. International Conference on Task Shifting. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2008.

Non-physician clinicians in 47 sub-Saharan African countries. Mullan F, Frehywot S. The Lancet. 2008;370(9605):2158-2163.

Postoperative outcome of caesarean sections and other major emergency obstetric surgery by clinical officers and medical officers in Malawi. Chilopora G, et al. Human Resources for Health. 2007;5(1):17.

Economic evaluation of surgically trained assistant medical officers in performing major obstetric surgery in Mozambique. Kruk ME, et al. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2007;114(10):1253-1260.

Meeting the need for emergency obstetric care in Mozambique: work performance and histories of medical doctors and assistant medical officers trained for surgery. Pereira C, et al. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2007;114(12);1530-1533.

Major surgery delegation to mid-level health practitioners in Mozambique: health professionals' perceptions. Cumbi A, et al. Human Resources for Health. 2007;5(1):27.

Nurses’ experiences of recruitment and immigration from developing countries: a phenomenological approach. Troy PH, Wyness PH, McAuliffe E. Human Resources for Health. 2007;5(1):15.

Shortage of health workers in the Malawian public health services system: how do parliamentarians perceive the problem? Muula AS. African Journal of Health Sciences. 2006;13(1-2):124-30.

Addressing the health workforce crisis: towards a common approach. Dal Poz M, et al. Human Resources for Health. 2006;4(1):21.

Who will do the caesareans when there is no doctor? Finding creative solutions to the human resource crisis. Bergstrom S. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2005;112(9):1168-1169.

Using mid-level cadres as substitutes for internationally mobile health professionals in Africa: a desk review. Dovlo D. Human Resources for Health. 2004;2(1):7.

Bypassing health centres in Tanzania: revealed preferences for quality. Leonard KL, GR Mliga, Mariam DH.Journal of African Economies. 2003;11(4):441-471.

Caring that counts: The evidence base for the effectiveness of nursing and midwifery interventions. Wold JL, et al. Commonwealth Steering Committee for Nursing and Midwifery & Lillian Carter Center for International Nursing; 2003.

Shifting visions: "delegation" policies and the building of a "rights-based" approach to maternal mortality. Freedman LP. Journal of the American Medical Women's Association. 2002;54(3):154-158.

Training medical assistants for surgery. Vaz F, et al. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1999;77(8):688-691.

A comparative study of caesarean deliveries by assistant medical officers and obstetricians in Mozambique. Pereira C, et al. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1996;103(6):508-512.

Reducing maternal mortality in Kigoma, Tanzania. Mbaruku G, Bergstrom S. Health Policy and Planning.1995;10(1):71-8.

Implementation science

Evaluating complex social interventions in a complex world. David Byrne. Evaluation. July 2013 19217-228.

Using case studies to explore the external validity of ‘complex’ development interventions. Michael Woolcock. Evaluation July 2013 19: 229-248

The Science of Large-Scale Change in Global Health. McCannon JC, Berwick and Massoud MR. JAMA. October 2007; 298: 1937 - 1939.

Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literature. Fixsen DL, Naoom SF, Blase KA, Friedman R M and Wallace F. Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute. 2005.


"An ambulance referral network improves access to emergency obstetric and neonatal care in a district of rural Burundi with high maternal mortality." Tayler-Smith, K., et al. (2013). Tropical Medicine & International Health 18(8): 993-1001.

Emergency obstetric care and referral: experience of two midwife-led health centres in rural Rajasthan, India. Iyengar K, Iyengar SD. Reproductive Health Matters. 2009;17(33):9–20.

Bypassing primary care facilities for childbirth: a population-based study in rural Tanzania. Kruk ME, Mbaruku G, McCord CW, Moran M, Rockers PC, Galea S. Health Policy and Planning. 2009;24:279–288.

Maternity referral systems in developing countries: current knowledge and future research needs. Murray SF, Pearson SC. Social Science & Medicine. 2006;62:2205–2215. 

Systems science

Systems Thinking for Health System Strengthening Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Management. Edited by Don de Savigny and Taghreed Adam. World Health Organization. 2009


"The Rise of Big Data." Foreign Affairs. 3 Apr. 2013. Web. 9 Oct. 2013. 

"Why are women dying when they reach the hospital on time? A systematic review of the 'Third Delay.'" Knight, H., Self, A., and S. Kennedy. (2013) PLOS ONE 8(5): e63846

"The relationship between facility delivery and infant immunization in Ethiopia." Moyer, C. A., et al. (2013). International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics

"‘Midwives are the backbone of our health system’: Lessons from Afghanistan to guide expansion of midwifery in challenging settings." Turkmani, S., et al. (2013). Midwifery

"Definitions and roles of a skilled birth attendant: a mapping exercise from four South-Asian countries." Utz, B., et al. (2013). Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 92(9): 1063-1069.

"Development of a community-based maternal, newborn and child emergency training package in South Sudan." Fehling, M., et al. (2013). Public Health.

"Global lessons on transforming strategy into action to save mothers’ lives." Pucher, P. H., et al. (2013). International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics.

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